Aiuto:IPA/Sarde

[[Category:Template:Pagetype with short description]]

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sardinian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-sc}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Sardinian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b baca, bia, bàbaru bike
β abauditu, ebreu, nebodaza[1] between baby and bevy
d dormi, sardu, doadura, (Logudorese) andalibeni done
dz acasazare, pranzu, cazare between buds and budge
gioba, Barbagia, culingiosso, panagèlicu budge
ɖ abbaraddadu, mundu, cherveddu Template:Audio-IPA[2] dine (Indian English)
ð abbacada, cantat [ˈkantaða], a therga[1] this
f foras, ufanu fast
ɡ gabbia, gherra, ghia, sangrau, fogu gas
ɣ buttega, sa gherra, arcu ’e chelu[1] like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
k corsía, àlpaca, chelu, cuadra, bruke, piachente[3] scar
l levantinu, abbalaucadu[2] lip
ʎ brigliaju, origlietas, bragliosu, contissigliu[2] roughly like million
m meledada, mamudinu, acampàda[2][4] mother
ɱ cunforma[4] some value
n nebodaza, energía[2] nest
ŋ ncheru, abbiènghidu[4] sing
ɲ apitzigàgnulu, gnagnajolu[2] roughly like canyon
ɳ afandare, mundu roughly like corndog
p pabasolu, písiri, splajare, ’alvispaltu spin
ɾ carena, dijimire atom (American English)
r rasada, ferrutzos trilled r
s secada, stantes, dilmissu between sip and ship
ʃ scelestu, lescenscia, balascios, isciri ship
t taneddu, àteu star
ts (Logudorese) tzacare, tzarra, catzare, Tzitzeddu, (Campidanese) tzaccau, tzitadi between cats and catch
ciabbata, cedda, cibbu, ciacosu, celibbadu catch
θ althrolitu, furrithu, tharalau, atheddina, istathu thin
v vacada, servu, jurafalzu, sa faína vent
z casara, ixemplu, stantes [ˈstantɛzɛ], su sole between zone and genre
ʒ (Logudorese) abbajocada, ajozi, conjugadu, ojos, (Campidanese) paxi, axedu, dexi genre
ʔ[5] pacu, connòschere, sa pache, sa luna getting (Cockney)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a Arba, areddare, àteru, proiàt roughly like father
e meri, panagèlicu, ghèneru[6] roughly like pay
ɛ xena, lèghere, isdentadu bed
i filu, síncheru, paxi, ixemplu see
o ogru, còtzula, abbaosu[6] law (British English)
ɔ connòschere, ogros, cando off
u domu, úrtima too
 
Semivowels
j eja, (Logudorese) gioja,[7] calzulaieddu,[8] (Campidanese) Sardinnia[9] you
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ cantat [ˈkantaða] primary stress
ˌ propiamente [ˌpɾopi.aˈmɛntɛ] secondary stress
. via [ˈvi.a] syllable break
ː fillu [ˈfilːu] geminated consonant[2]
  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Phonemic /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ between vowels are usually realized as [β], [ð], [ɣ], and sometimes even omitted. Omission does not normally occur when those are the realizations for phonemic /p/, /t/, /θ/, /k/.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 Gemination, here represented by Template:Angbr IPA, is only distinctive for the pairs /l, lː/, /m, mː/ and /n, nː/, and and only occurs after a vowel, where it also occurs for Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink (the latter two being common realizations of /lːj/ and /nːj/, respectively).
  3. Usually, /k/ is written down following either the Italian style (by using Template:Angbr before e and i: e.g.
    anchilla
    ,
    chelu
    ,
    chena
    ,
    chi
    , etc.), the Byzantine style (by using Template:Angbr: e.g.
    ankilla
    ,
    kelu
    ,
    kena
    ,
    ki
    , etc.) or (now rare) the Spanish style (by using Template:Angbr before e and i: e.g.
    anquilla
    ,
    quelu
    ,
    quena
    ,
    qui
    , etc.)
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Nasal consonants always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is velar Template:IPAblink, but before /v/ or /f/, it is labiodental Template:IPAblink. It is Template:IPAblink only before /p/, /b/ or /m/ and Template:IPAblink before /ɖ/.
  5. Glottal stops usually occur for intervocalic /k/ in some dialects of Barbagia, and for intervocalic /l/ and /n/ in some dialects of Sarrabus.
  6. 6,0 6,1 /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ are realized as [e] and [o], respectively, if the following syllable contains /i/, /u/, a palatal, or another occurrence of [e] or [o]. This is not the case if [i] results from a phonemic /ɛ/.
  7. One of the cases in which the grapheme Template:Angbr does not represent the sound Template:IPAblink.
  8. A rare case, using the grapheme Template:Angbr, normally representing a full vowel /i/.
  9. Phonetically transcribed as [saɾˈdinːja], as opposed to
    Sardigna
    in Logudorese, transcribed as [saɾˈdiɲːa]. In Campidanese this semivowel is more usual.

Further readingModifica

  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1989) [1957]. Dizionario Etimologico Sardo (per Italian). Trois.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (1994). ELLO ELLUS, grammatica della lingua sarda (per Italian). Nuoro (Sardinia): Poliedro Edizioni.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (2007). Sardo e italiano a confronto. CUEC.
  • Mura, Riccardo; Virdis, Maurizio (2015). Caratteri e strutture fonetiche, fonologiche e prosodiche della lingua sarda. Il sintetizzatore vocale SINTESA (per Italian). Condaghes.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Puddu, Mario (2015) [2000]. Ditzionàriu de sa limba e de sa cultura sarda (per Sardinian). Condaghes.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Template:IPA keys