Berlin

zità de la Germania
Articul per Ladin Gherdëina Val Gardena dall'alto.JPG


Siegessaeule Aussicht 10-13 img4 Tiergarten.jpg
Berlin
Blason de Berlin
Nfurmazions prinzipeles
Stat GermaniaGermania Germania
Stat federel BerlinBerlin Berlin
Fundazion 13ejim secul do Gejù Crist
Populazion 3 664 088 ab. (2021)
Densità 4 107,72 ab./km²
Geografia
Coordinedes 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500Coordinedes: 52°31′12″N 13°24′18″E / 52.52000°N 13.40500°E / 52.52000; 13.40500
Autëza 34 m sëura l livel dl mer
Spersa 892 km²
Auter
Codesc targa de l'auto B
Gemeindeschlüssel 11000000
Cherta
Cherta de localisazion: Germania
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin (Germania)

Berlin (pronunzià [bɛʁˈliːn] (Nfurmazions sun chësta uscscota su)[1]) ie la capitela y la majera zità de la Germania y ënghe un de i 16 stac federei (Bundesländer).[2][3] Si 3,7 milions de abitanc ne'n fej la majera zità de l'Union Europea ncont de abitanc tl chemun.[4] Berlin ie ncertleda ite dal Brandenburg y ie tacheda adum cun Potsdam, la capitela dl Brandenburg. L raion urban de Berlin à na populazion de ntëur a 4,5 milions de abitanc, cie che ne'n fej l segondo majer raion urban do la Ruhr.[5] L raion Berlin-Brandenburg à ntëur a 6,2 milions de abitanc y ie la terzo majer raion metropolitan de la Germania do i raions Rain-Ruhr y Rain-Main.[6]

Berlin ie sui ëures de la Spree, che tl raion de Spandau va te la Havel (y chëla va po te la Elbe). La zità à n grum de lec tl vest y sud. L majer de chisc ie l Müggelsee. Berlin à n tlima temperà. Belau n terz de la spersa de la zità ie bosc, parchs y verzons, ruves, canai y lec.[7]

Berlin fova stata documenteda per l prim iede tl 13ejim secul ala ncrujeda de doi mpurtantes rutes comerzieles.[8] Berlin fova deventeda la capitela dl Margraviat de Brandenburg (1417–1701), dl Rëni de Pruscia (1701–1918), dl Mper Tudësch (1871–1918), de la Republica de Weimar (1919–1933) y de la Germania nazista (1933–1945). Berlin ti ani 1920 fova l majer chemun al mond.[9] Do la Segonda Viera Mundiela y la ocupazion de la zità da pert de la forzes che ova venciù, ie la zità stata spartida; Westberlin fova deventà n exclav de la Germania dl Vest, ncertleda ite dal Mur de Berlin (da agost 1961 a nuvëmber 1989) y da la Germania de l'Est.[10] Ostberlin fova deventeda la capitela de la Germania de l'Est y Bonn chëla de la Germania dl Vest. Do la Reunificazion tudëscia tl 1990 ie Berlin inò deventeda la capitela de duta la Germania.

Berlin ie na zità mundiela de cultura, pulitica, media and scienza.[11][12][13][14] Si economia se basa sun firmes high-tech y firmes tl setor di servijes, cun n grum de industries creatives, de nrescida, firmes de media y sales per fieres.[15][16] Berlin ie n hub cuntinentel per l trasport sun scines y te l'aria y à n sistem de trasport publich scialdi cumplex. L raion metropolitan ie na destinazion turistica scialdi renumeda.[17]

Berlin ie la sënta de n numer de universiteies renumedes sëura l mond, sciche la Università Humboldt, la Università Tecnica, la Università Lieda, la Università d'Ert, ESMT Berlin, la Scola Hertie y l Bard College Berlin. L Zoologischer Garten ie l zoo plu vijità de l'Europa y un de i plu mpurtanc al mond. L studio Babelsberg fova l prim gran cumplex de studios da film al mond y a Berlin vën fac plu y plu films nternaziunei.[18] La zità ie cunesciuda per si festivals, plu sortes de architetura, vita da nuet, ert de al didancuei y na cualità de vita scialdi auta.[19]

Berlin à trëi sic de l'Arpejon Mundiela UNESCO: Museumsinsel; i Palac y parchs de Potsdam y Berlin; y la Siedlungen der Berliner Moderne.[20] Autri luesc mpurtanc ie la Porta de Brandenburg, l Cësa dl Reichstag, l Potsdamer Platz, l Memorial ai Judieres mazei de l'Europa, l Memorial dl Mur de Berlin, la East Side Gallery, la Culona de Vitoria de Berlin, l Dom de Berlin y la Tor Televijiva de Berlin, che ie la strutura plu auta te la Germania. Berlin à n grum de museums, galeries, biblioteches y orchestres. Danter chisc ie la Alte Nationalgalerie, l Bode-Museum, l Pergamonmuseum, l Deutsches Historisches Museum, l Museum di Judieres de Berlin, l Museum für Naturkunde, l Humboldt Forum, la Bibliotech Statela de Berlin, l'Opra Statela de Berlin, i Berliner Philharmoniker y l Marathon de Berlin.

StoriaModifica

Dal 12ejim al 16ejim esculModifica

 
Cherta de Berlin tl 1688
 
Catedrela de Berlin (man ciancia) y l Palaz de Berlin (man drëta) tl 1900

La prima evidënzes de nridlamënc tl raion de Berlin ie i sedims de na cësa dl 1174 che ie stata abineda te giavedes te Berlin Mitte,[21] y n tram de lën che ie stat datà al 1192.[22] I prim tesć sun luesc ulache al didancuei ie Berlin ie de la fin dl 12ejim secul. Spandau ie stat nunzià per l prim iede tl 1197 y Köpenick tl 1209.[23] La pert zentrela de Berlin se à cul tëmp furmà da doi luesc. Cölln sun la Fischerinsel ie stat nunzià te n documënt dl 1237, y Berlin, sun l'auter ëur de la Spree tl raion che ie sën l Nikolaiviertel, ie stata nunzieda te n documënt dl 1244.[22] L ann 1237 vën tëut coche la fundazion de la zità.[24] La doi ziteies ie cul tëmp cresciudes adum y prufitova de vester sun la rutes comerzieles Via Imperii da Brugge a Novgorod.[8] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.[25][26]

Tl 1415 ie Friedrich I. von Brandenburg deventà l prinz-litadëur dl Margraviat de Brandenburg y ova renià nfin al 1440.[27] Tl 15ejim secul oven metù su Berlin-Cölln coche la capitela dl margraviat y i cumëmbri de la familia Hohenzollern ovà da ilò inant renià a Berlin nfin al 1918, n iede coche litadëures de Brandenburg, pona coche rëisc de la Pruscia, y ala fin coche cozeri de la Germania. Tl 1443 ova Friedrich II. von Brandenburg, cunesciù coche Eisenzahn, scumencià a fabriché l palaz de Berlin te la zità de Berlin-Cölln. Dal 1470 inant fova Berlin-Cölln deventeda la nueva residënza da rë.[26] Tl 1539 fova i litadëures y la zità deventei ufizielmënter luteran.[28]

Dal 17ejim al 19ejim seculModifica

La Viera di 30 Ani danter l 1618 y l 1648 ova devastà Berlin. N terz de la cëses fova states desdrudes y la zità ova perdù mesa si populazion.[29] Friedrich Wilhelm, cunesciù coche l "Gran Litadëur" (Großer Kurfürst), ova metù na scumenciadiva de dé mpuls ala imigrazion y la toleranza religëusa.[30] Cul Edict de Potsdam tl 1685 ova Friedrich Wilhelm dat asil politich ai Huguenots franzëusc.[31] Chësc ova purtà pro che tl 1700 fova belau l 30% de la populazion de Berlin franzëusc.[32] Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg.[33]

 
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years.

Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In 1701, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom,[34] replacing Königsberg. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin".[25]

In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power.[35] Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the Seven Years' War by the Russian army.[36] Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city.[37] In 1815, the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg.[38]

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic center of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861, neighboring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin.[39] In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire.[40] In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.[41]

20ejim y 21ejim secuiModifica

In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement.[42] In fields such as architecture, painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of the First World War in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages, and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled, and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government, and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

 
Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)

In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 due to emigration between 1933 and 1939. After Kristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to concentration camps, such as Auschwitz.[43] Berlin is the most heavily bombed city in history.[mancia na referënza] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed during Template:Dash year Allied air raids and the 1945 Battle of Berlin. The Allies dropped 67,607 tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6,427 acres of the built-up area. Around 125,000 civilians were killed.[44] After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[45]

 
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949.[46] In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines.

 
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.

The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize. East Berlin included most of the city's historic center. The West German government established itself in Bonn.[47] In 1961, East Germany began to build the Berlin Wall around West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech on June 26, 1963, in front of the Schöneberg city hall, located in the city's western part, underlining the US support for West Berlin.[48] Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners, travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.[49]

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became a reunified city.[50] Walter Momper, the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. City-wide elections in December 1990 resulted in the first "all Berlin" mayor being elected to take office in January 1991, with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring by that time, and Eberhard Diepgen (a former mayor of West Berlin) became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin.[51] On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the withdrawal of allied occupation troops allowing a reunified Berlin[52] (the last Russian troops departed on 31 August, while the final departure of Western Allies forces was on 8 September 1994). On 20 June 1991, the Bundestag (German Parliament) voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999.

The rebuilt Berlin Palace nearing completion, in 2021

Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several boroughs, reducing their number from 23 to 12.

In 2006, the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

In a 2016 terrorist attack linked to ISIL, a truck was deliberately driven into a Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, leaving 13 people dead and 55 others injured.[53][54]

Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) opened in 2020, nine years later than planned, with Terminal 1 coming into service at the end of October, and flights to and from Tegel Airport ending in November.[55] Due to the fall in passenger numbers resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, plans were announced to temporarily close BER's Terminal 5, the former Schönefeld Airport, beginning in March 2021 for up to one year.[56] The connecting link of U-Bahn line U5 from Alexanderplatz to Hauptbahnhof, along with the new stations Rotes Rathaus and Unter den Linden, opened on 4 December 2020, with the Museumsinsel U-Bahn station expected to open around March 2021, which would complete all new works on the U5.[57] A partial opening by the end of 2020 of the Humboldt Forum museum, housed in the reconstructed Berlin Palace, which had been announced in June, was postponed until March 2021.[58]

GeografiaModifica

TlimaModifica

Temperatures mesanes y prezipitazions per Berlin
Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
Mesaria mascima (°C) 2,9 4,2 8,5 13,2 18,9 21,6 23,7 23,6 18,8 13,4 7,1 4,4 Ø 13,4
Mesaria minima (°C) −1,9 −1,5 1,3 4,2 9,0 12,3 14,3 14,1 10,6 6,4 2,2 −0,4 Ø 5,9
Prezipitazions (mm) 42,3 33,3 40,5 37,1 53,8 68,7 55,5 58,2 45,1 37,3 43,6 55,3 Σ 570,7
Dis cun prezipitazions (d) 10,0 8,0 9,1 7,8 8,9 9,8 8,4 7,9 7,8 7,6 9,6 11,4 Σ 106,3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
2,9
−1,9
4,2
−1,5
8,5
1,3
13,2
4,2
18,9
9,0
21,6
12,3
23,7
14,3
23,6
14,1
18,8
10,6
13,4
6,4
7,1
2,2
4,4
−0,4
Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
42,3
33,3
40,5
37,1
53,8
68,7
55,5
58,2
45,1
37,3
43,6
55,3
  Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
Funtana: DWD, Daten: 1971–2000[59]

CapitelaModifica

Berlin ie la capitela de la Republica Federela de la Germania. L presidënt de la Germania, che aldò de la costituzion à na funzion scialdi mé zerimoniela, à si residënza ufiziela tl Palaz Bellevue.[60] Berlin is the seat of the German Chancellor (Prime Minister), housed in the Chancellery building, the Bundeskanzleramt. Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag, the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in 1998. The Bundesrat ("federal council", performing the function of an upper house) is the representation of the 16 constituent states (Länder) of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords. The total annual federal budget managed by the German government exceeded €310 ($375) billion in 2013.[61]

The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in 1999. However, some ministries, as well as some minor departments, stayed in the federal city Bonn, the former capital of West Germany. Discussions about moving the remaining ministries and departments to Berlin continue.[62] The Federal Foreign Office and the ministries and departments of Defense, Justice and Consumer Protection, Finance, Interior, Economic Affairs and Energy, Labor and Social Affairs, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Food and Agriculture, Economic Cooperation and Development, Health, Transport and Digital Infrastructure and Education and Research are based in the capital.

Berlin hosts in total 158 foreign embassies[63] as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, nonprofit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations. Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant center of German and European affairs. Frequent official visits and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national leaders are common in contemporary Berlin.

ArchiteturaModifica

 
Panorama of the Gendarmenmarkt, showing the Konzerthaus Berlin, flanked by the German Church (left) and French Church (right)

The Fernsehturm (TV tower) at Alexanderplatz in Mitte is among the tallest structures in the European Union at 368 m (1,207 ft). Built in 1969, it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. The city can be viewed from its 204-meter-high (669 ft) observation floor. Starting here, the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus (City Hall), with its distinctive red-brick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen, a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons, personifications of the four main Prussian rivers, and Neptune on top of it.

The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodeled by British architect Norman Foster in the 1990s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.

The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division.

The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. Two similarly designed cathedrals border it, the Französischer Dom with its observation platform and the Deutscher Dom. The Konzerthaus (Concert Hall), home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals.

The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues.[64][65] Also on the island and next to the Lustgarten and palace is Berlin Cathedral, emperor William II's ambitious attempt to create a Protestant counterpart to St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. St. Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral.

Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east–west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade. Many Classical buildings line the street, and part of Humboldt University is there. Friedrichstraße was Berlin's legendary street during the Golden Twenties. It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin.

Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after the Wall came down.[66] To the west of Potsdamer Platz is the Kulturforum, which houses the Gemäldegalerie, and is flanked by the Neue Nationalgalerie and the Berliner Philharmonie. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is to the north.[67]

The area around Hackescher Markt is home to fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries. This includes the Hackesche Höfe, a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around 1996. The nearby New Synagogue is the center of Jewish culture.

The Straße des 17. Juni, connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east–west axis. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June 1953. Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in 1938–39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag.

The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz. The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. Nearby on Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, claimed to be continental Europe's largest department store. The Rathaus Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" speech, is in Tempelhof-Schöneberg.

West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Charlottenburg Palace, which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin.

The Funkturm Berlin is a 150-meter-tall (490 ft) lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. It is the only observation tower which stands on insulators and has a restaurant 55 m (180 ft) and an observation deck 126 m (413 ft) above ground, which is reachable by a windowed elevator.

The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. The bridge was completed in a brick gothic style in 1896, replacing the former wooden bridge with an upper deck for the U-Bahn. The center portion was demolished in 1945 to stop the Red Army from crossing. After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin. In the mid-1950s, it was closed to vehicles, and after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, pedestrian traffic was heavily restricted. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in 1995.

DemografiaModifica

 
Populazion de Berlin, 1880–2012
Populazion storica
AnnPop.±%
172165 300—    
1750113 289+73.5%
1800172 132+51.9%
1815197 717+14.9%
1825220 277+11.4%
1840330 230+49.9%
1852438 958+32.9%
1861547 571+24.7%
1871826 341+50.9%
18801 122 330+35.8%
18901 578 794+40.7%
19001 888 848+19.6%
19102 071 257+9.7%
19203 879 409+87.3%
19254 082 778+5.2%
19334 221 024+3.4%
19394 330 640+2.6%
19453 064 629−29.2%
19503 336 026+8.9%
19603 274 016−1.9%
19703 208 719−2.0%
19803 048 759−5.0%
19903 433 695+12.6%
20003 382 169−1.5%
20103 460 725+2.3%
20203 664 088+5.9%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

NazionaliteiesModifica

Residënza per naziunalità (31 dezëmber 2019)[4]
Stat Populazion
Total di abitanc registrei 3,769,495
  Germania 2,992,150
  Turchia 98,940
  Polonia 56,573
  Siria 39,813
  Talia 31,573
  Bulgaria 30,824
  Ruscia 26,640
  Romania 24,264
  Stac Unii 22,694
  Vietnam 20,572
  Franzia 20,223
  Serbia 20,109
  Riam Unì 16,751
  Spania 15,045
  Grecia 14,625
  Croazia 14,430
  India 13,450
  Ucraina 13,410
  Afghanistan 13,301
  Cina 13,293
  Bosnia y Herzegovina 12,691
Rest dl Mez Urient y Asia 88,241
Rest de l'Europa 80,807
Africa 36,414
Other Americas 27,491
Oceania and Antarctica 5,651
Stateless or Unclear 24,184

InfrastruturaModifica

TrasportModifica

StredesModifica

Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility.[68] A total of 979 bridges cross 197 km (122 mi) of inner-city waterways. 5,422 km (3,369 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 77 km (48 mi) are motorways (

).[69] In 2013, 1.344 million motor vehicles were registered in the city.[69] With 377 cars per 1000 residents in 2013 (570/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a Western global city has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita.[mancia na referënza] In 2012, around 7,600 mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service.[mancia na referënza] Since 2011, a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved.

FerataModifica

 
ie la majera stazion dla ferata a partimënc de l'Europa.

Linies de ferata a distanza culeghea Berlin cun duta la majera ziteies de la Germania y cun n grum de ziteies di stac Europeics che cunfina. Linies regioneles dl

pieta servijes ai raions dl Brandenburg ntëurvia y al Mer Baltich. L

ie la majera stazion dla ferata a partimënc de l'Europa.[70]

runs high speed Intercity-Express trains to domestic destinations like

, Munich, Cologne,

,

and others. It also runs an airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Viena, Praga,

, Varsavia, Breslau, Budapest y Amsterdam.

Trasport sun egaModifica

Berlin is connected to the Elbe and Oder rivers via the Spree and the Havel rivers. There are no frequent passenger connections to and from Berlin by water, but some of the freight is transported via waterways. Berlin's largest harbour, the Westhafen, is located in the district of Moabit. It is a transhipment and storage site for inland shipping with a growing importance.[71]

Curieres danter ziteiesModifica

Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations[72] that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe,

Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin

being the biggest station.

Trasport publichModifica

 
The
Berlin U-Bahn
(Metro) at
Heidelberger Platz
station

The

(BVG) and the

Deutsche Bahn

(DB) manage several extensive urban public transport systems.[73]

Sistem Stazions / Linies / Lunghëza Passajiers a l'ann Operadëur / Notes
166 / 16 / 331 km (206 mi) 431 000 000 (2016) DB / Mainly overground rapid transit rail system with suburban stops
173 / 10 / 146 km (91 mi) 563 000 000 (2017) BVG / Mainly underground rail system / 24h-service on weekends
Tram 404 / 22 / 194 km (121 mi) 197 000 000 (2017) BVG / Operates predominantly in eastern boroughs
Curiera 3227 / 198 / 1,675 km (1,041 mi) 440 000 000 (2017) BVG / Extensive services in all boroughs / 62 Night Lines
Bastimënt 6 lines BVG / Transportation as well as recreational ferries

Travelers can access all modes of transport with a single ticket.

Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20th-century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served. Since 1989, the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20th century traits, such as the U1.[74]

AeroporcModifica

 
Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
 
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg

Berlin is served by one commercial international airport: Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER), located just outside Berlin's south-eastern border, in the state of Brandenburg. It began construction in 2006, with the intention of replacing

Airport (TXL) and

Schönefeld

Airport (SXF) as the single commercial airport of Berlin.[75] Previously set to open in 2012, after extensive delays and cost overruns, it opened for commercial operations in October 2020.[76] The planned initial capacity of around 27 million passengers per year[77] is to be further developed to bring the terminal capacity to approximately 55 million per year by 2040.[78]

Before the opening of the BER in Brandenburg, Berlin was served by Tegel Airport and Schönefeld Airport. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. Both airports together handled 29.5 million passengers in 2015. In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in 50 countries from Berlin.[79]

Tegel

Airport was a focus city for Lufthansa and Eurowings while Schönefeld served as an important destination for airlines like

, easyJet and Ryanair. Until 2008, Berlin was also served by the smaller Tempelhof Airport, which functioned as a city airport, with a convenient location near the city center, allowing for quick transit times between the central business district and the airport. The airport grounds have since been turned into a city park.

Jì cun la rodaModifica

Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system.[80] It is estimated Berlin has 710 bicycles per 1000 residents. Around 500,000 daily bike riders accounted for 13% of total traffic in 2010.[81] Cyclists have access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 km (118 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100 km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km (31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements (or sidewalks).[82] Riders are allowed to carry their bicycles on

, S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on trams, and on night buses if a bike ticket is purchased.[83]

Galaria de fotografiesModifica


Cëla nceModifica

NotesModifica

ReferënzesModifica

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FuntanesModifica


 
Stac federei de la Germania

Baden-Württemberg  Baden-Württemberg | Berlin  Berlin | Brandenburg  Brandenburg | Bremen  Bremen | Hamburg  Hamburg | Hessen  Hessen | Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern | Niedersachsen  Niedersachsen | Nordrhein-Westfalen  Nordrhein-Westfalen
Paiern  Paiern | Rheinland-Pfalz  Rheinland-Pfalz | Saarland  Saarland | Sachsen  Sachsen | Sachsen-Anhalt  Sachsen-Anhalt | Schleswig-Holstein  Schleswig-Holstein | Thüringen  Thüringen